23 mars 2010
54 Les Huguenots by Giacomo Meyerbeer
Les Huguenots is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, one of the most popular and spectacular examples of the style of grand opera. The opera is in five acts and premiered in Paris in 1836. The libretto was written by Eugène Scribe and Émile Deschamps.
The plot of the opera culminates in the historical St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572 in which thousands of French Huguenots (Protestants) were slaughtered by Catholics in an effort to rid France of Protestant influence. Although the massacre was a historical event, the rest of the plot, which primarily concerns the love between the Catholic Valentine and the Protestant Raoul, is wholly a creation of Scribe.
A short orchestral prelude, featuring the Lutheran chorale Ein feste Burg, replaces the extended overture Meyerbeer originally intended for the opera. We are at the chateau of the (Catholic) count of Nevers, who is entertaining his fellow noblemen. They await the arrival of Raoul, and are surprised to hear that this emissary of the Court is a Huguenot. After a drinking song at Raoul’s entry, the newcomer is prevailed upon to give a tale of love. Raoul tells of an unknown beauty he has rescued and fallen in love with. (With a daring and unusual stroke of orchestration, Meyerbeer accompanies this aria with a solo viola d’amore). Raoul’s Protestant servant Marcel is shocked to see his master in such wicked company and sings a hearty Protestant prayer (to the tune of ‘Ein fester Burg’). He then sings a Huguenot battle song from the siege of La Rochelle, Pif, paf.
The arrival of a mysterious lady stranger to speak to Nevers (off stage) interrupts the proceedings. Raoul recognises her as his mysterious beauty. In fact she is Nevers’s intended bride, Valentine (daughter of St. Bris), instructed by the Queen to break off her engagement. Enter the page Urbain, with a secret message for Raoul, daring him to come blindfold to a secret rendezvous.
The chateau and gardens of Chenonceaux. Queen Marguerite looks into a mirror held by her enamoured page Urbain, and sings the virtuoso pastorale, O beau pays de la Touraine. Valentine enters and reports that Nevers has agreed to break the engagement. Marguerite’s entourage of ladies enter dressed for bathing – cue for a ballet. Raoul enters blindfolded and the ladies tease him. With his sight restored, the Queen orders Raoul to marry Valentine to cement relations between the Protestant and Catholic factions. In a complex final ensemble, while a chorus of nobles swears friendship, Raoul, who believes Valentine is the mistress of Nevers, refuses to comply with the Queen’s command. The nobles then swear revenge, and Marcel reproaches Raoul for mixing with Catholics.
Paris, the ‘Pré aux clercs’ on the left bank of the Seine, at sunset. The act opens with extensive scene setting of citizens, soldiers, church-goers and gypsies. Valentine has just married Nevers, but remains in the chapel to pray. Marcel delivers a challenge from Raoul. Saint-Bris decides to attack Raoul, but is overheard by Valentine. A watchman declares curfew (the scene anticipating a similar one in Wagner’s Die Meistersinger). Valentine, in disguise, tells Marcel of the plot against Raoul. The duel is interrupted by rival factions of Protestant and Catholic students, and only the arrival of the Queen stems the chaos. Raoul realises that Valentine has saved him and that his suspicions of her were unfounded – however, now she is wedded to his enemy. Nevers leads her away in a splendid procession.
A room in Nevers’ Parisian town-house. Valentine, alone, is surprised by Raoul who wishes to have one last meeting with her. The sound of approaching people leads Raoul to hide behind a curtain, where he hears the Catholic nobles, accompanied by three monks, who bless their swords, pledge to murder the Huguenots. Only Nevers does not join in the oath. This scene is generally judged the most gripping in the opera, and is accompanied by some of its most dramatic music. When the nobles have departed, Raoul is torn between warning his fellows and staying with Valentine, but finally duty triumphs over love. Valentine faints as Raoul makes his escape.
A ballroom. The Protestants are celebrating the marriage of the Queen to Henry of Navarre. The tolling of a bell interrupts the proceeding, as does the entrance of Raoul, who informs the assembly that the second stroke was the signal for the Catholic massacre of the Huguenots.
A cemetery – in the background a ruined Protestant church. Nevers dies protecting Marcel, who is wounded; Valentine agrees to become a Protestant to marry Raoul and Marcel carries out the nuptials. A ‘chorus of murderers’ shoots all three, after they express their vision of heaven, ‘with six harps’. They are finally murdered by St. Bris and his men, he realising only too late that he has killed his own daughter. The entrance of the Queen, and the chorus of soldiers singing ‘God wants blood!’, bring the opera to a close.
Raoul de Nangis, a huguenot – tenor
Comte de Nevers, a catholic nobleman – baritone
Marcel,Raoul’s servant – bass
Valentine, fiancée of Nevers – soprano
Marguerite de Valois, Queen of France – soprano
Urbain, a page – mezzo-soprano
Les Huguenots is the kind of opera that would do very well as a bit of parody of opera itself. It’s big drama, the roles are among the most difficult (which explains why it’s not performed very often) and in the end everybody dies. Well joking aside, I haven’t seen the opera, so I think it’s hard to give any judgement of it without the full music. The libretto is melodramatic, but with suitable music it might work well. The opera is rarely performed in full, there are some concert version of it though. Joan Sutherland gave it some publicity though, and is probably the modern singer that is mostly associated with it. Here she is singing Marguerite’s aria O beau pays, the duet in act 4 Tu m’aimes is also pretty popular, and wonderful music. One also realises how difficult Raoul’s part is, considering that this is the kind of singing he does throughout the whole opera, and he’s on stage for almost the full opera.